Heat pumps represent a universal system for heating and cooling. This clean, efficient, and environmentally friendly system is easy to use, cheaper than other energy sources, and requires no worries or effort from the user. Today, there are several versions of heat pumps that differ in design, capabilities to reach desired temperatures for heating and/or domestic hot water at low external temperatures, and most importantly, they vary in efficiency.

Heat pumps represent a universal system for heating and cooling. A clean, efficient, and environmentally friendly system is easy to use, cheaper than other fuels, and requires no worries or labor on the part of the user. The efficiency compared to other fuels is higher, consequently allowing for lower heating costs. With the help of a heat pump, you can heat spaces, warm sanitary water, or cool spaces.

Heating-cooling systems are suitable for all types of buildings, whether they are new constructions, older structures, or multi-residential and industrial buildings. The use of a heat pump is suitable year-round and versatile in heating methods, whether it’s radiator, underfloor, or air heating.


Today, there are several types of heat pumps that differ in shape, their ability to reach desired temperatures of heating and/or sanitary water at low outside temperatures, and, above all, in efficiency. Broadly speaking and based on their purpose, they are categorized into heating and sanitary heat pumps.


Heating Heat Pumps

Types of heating heat pumps differ based on the heat source. Air/water heat pumps, which are the most cost-effective, enable heating even at -25 °C. Water/water heat pumps operate using the heat from groundwater, requiring two wells to be drilled—one for pumping (inserting a submerged pump) and the other for returning groundwater. Groundwater, due to its relatively high temperature, is an ideal heat source, providing high coefficient of performance and being the most energy-efficient (averaged throughout the year). Thirdly, there are ground/water heat pumps that utilize the thermal energy from the ground, and this energy depends on the composition of the soil, the power of the heat pump, and the method of exploitation. The last option for heating heat pumps is hybrid heat pumps, combining the properties of two heat sources: ground and air. Heating heat pumps are further distinguished based on the temperature range of the flow. Thus, heat pumps can operate in a high-temperature mode, allowing a flow temperature of 65°C and sanitary water temperatures of up to 65°C. This is more suitable for radiator heating and older buildings. The legionella prevention program, requiring 60-65°C, is built-in serially in certain heat pumps (e.g., Adapt); those without it can achieve it with an additional electric heater. In a low-temperature mode, heat pumps achieve a flow temperature of up to 55°C, being a perfect solution for buildings with underfloor, wall, or ceiling heating or low-temperature radiators, allowing heating of sanitary water in an already installed boiler.


Sanitary Heat Pumps

There are several basic types of sanitary heat pumps operating with one heat source – air. The simplest and most economical ones are compact heat pumps, where the unit is attached to the boiler. Air-cooled heat pumps enable space dehumidification and the utilization of waste heat (air intake or air discharge into an adjacent space). They are further distinguished based on power or the required amount of hot water (different boiler volumes).


Convector heaters allow cooling or heating using cold or hot water prepared by the cooling device or heat pump. For cooling, all connecting pipes must be thermally insulated, and each convector must have a condensate drain. They are available in powers ranging from 2 to 10 kW, in various forms allowing for ideal integration into any space.



A heat pump is one of the cleanest heating systems, as it utilizes renewable energy sources—water, earth, and air. For the first two, an investment in a heat extraction system is required, either wells for pumping and returning water to the groundwater or a ground collector, whether horizontal or vertical. A heat pump that uses air as a heat source does not require additional external financial investments.


Combined or hybrid use of two sources simultaneously is also possible, with switching between sources based on which option is more favorable and energy-efficient at any given moment.


The heat pump obtains the majority of the required heating energy for free from the surroundings (renewable sources), and the remaining energy is invested in the form of electrical energy. The heat pump only requires electrical energy from the grid for the device’s operation and not for heating.


The basic principle for choosing a heat source applies: heat sources with higher temperatures mean higher coefficient of performance and thus lower heating costs.


When determining the available heat source, we always start with the one that has the highest average annual temperature. If this is not available, we gradually consider heat sources with lower temperatures as described below.



(ground collector or geosonde)

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Temperature throughout the year Relatively constant between 0 °C and 9°C. Constant between 9 °C and 13 °C. Highly variable, ranging from -20 to +40°C.
Efficiency Typically achieved COP ranges from 4 to 5. Typically achieved COP ranges from 4.5 to 6. Depending on the quality of the heat pump. The COP of European manufacturers ranges from 3 to 5 (low-cost heat pumps range from 1.5 to 3.5).
Availability Everywhere; for geosondes, potential obstacles include water protection areas or underground caves (karst). Availability and quality remain constant over time. Some locations; where high-quality groundwater is available and there are no water protection areas. Quality and water levels may change over time. Everywhere; less common in very cold climate areas. Availability and quality do not change over time.
Implementation Simple; can be implemented independently (ground collector).

Complex; requires a qualified drilling contractor for implementation (geosonde).

Typically, the contractor completes the entire heat source, bringing the connecting pipes into the building and completing the groundwork. The planning and execution of the project must be carefully prepared.

The drilling contractor performs suction and discharge wells using appropriate equipment. Typically, the contractor completes the entire heat source, bringing pipes and cables from the wells into the building and completing the groundwork. Simple; can be done independently with an appropriate base and connection to the boiler room.

Complex; carried out by a turnkey contractor.

Implementation duration 1—3 days 1—2 days 1—2 days
Required permits Mining for geosondes (provided by the contractor). Water permit and mining permit for wells deeper than 30m (provided or assisted by the contractor). No special permits required. Compliance with noise standards is necessary.
Investment amount Moderate for ground collectors, high for geosondes. Moderate Low
Subsidy High

(resulting in a final investment similar to an air/water heat pump)


(resulting in a final investment similar to an air/water heat pump)

Common mistakes and issues Incorrectly dimensioned geosonde or collector for utilizing the heat source;

Lower thermal output from the ground.

Poorly executed suction or discharge well – water contains a lot of sand, suction well does not drain water;

Shallow wells – intakes (1—4m) can cause very low water temperatures during snowmelt;

Failure to follow recommendations for installing a balancing valve, water filter, pressure gauge, and PIL module.

Incorrect placement, obstructed air intake or exhaust, wrong location, causing noise to neighbors or sleeping areas. Incorrectly determined power of the heat pump relative to the needs and climatic micro-location.
Heat output For 1 kW of heating power, you need 30—35 m of ground collector or 15—18 m of geosonde. For 1 kW of heating power, you need

0.23 m3/h groundwater flow.


Heating with a heat pump is the most cost-effective long-term heating method. Savings depend on the type of heat pump, building characteristics, and consumption, ranging up to 80% compared to other heating systems. The investment pays off in approximately three years for sanitary heat pumps and about five to seven years for heating heat pumps. In other words, over the life of the heat pump, savings equivalent to the value of a new average car are achieved.

In addition to long-term annual savings, maintenance costs are also lower. Yearly chimney inspection and cleaning, as well as the cost of building a chimney in new constructions, represent significant expenses. Heat pumps, on the other hand, only require a recommended preventive check. Like a car, regular maintenance generally prevents heat pump failures, with the operating hours of a heat pump averaging 2000 to 3000 hours per year, requiring only one annual service. Regular preventive servicing is more cost-effective outside the heating season and can be performed more quickly than during the crowded heating season.

The installation cost of a heat pump depends on the chosen design and required power. In addition to the cost of the heat pump itself, we must add the costs of other necessary components, materials, and installation works. These include a boiler and storage tank, installation material, mechanical and electrical installation works, and works and materials to ensure the heat source.

Moreover, heat pumps are subsidized by the Eco Fund. With a subsidy, up to 50% of the amount can be refunded for a water/water heat pump in a degraded area, otherwise, the amount varies. The grant allocation depends on the geographical area, as some municipalities do not grant subsidies for heat pumps.


A heat pump utilizes renewable energy sources for its operation, producing no harmful emissions, ensuring a cleaner environment for us and our children. Efficiency and higher yields contribute to reduced consumption of natural resources, as well as the low electricity consumption needed for the heat pump’s operation.

Heat pumps are increasingly manufactured using environmentally friendly and recyclable materials (e.g., the Adapt heat pump), and the choice of a nearby provider also reduces the carbon footprint, shortening transportation and subsequently reducing harmful emissions.



Managing a heat pump is easy since, apart from switching between winter and summer mode (or vice versa), there is nothing else to adjust. It operates automatically and provides users with complete peace of mind.

Similarly, users have no tasks such as those required for heating with wood or pellets. In the latter system, continuous loading into the stove, ensuring an adequate quantity, the fluctuating cost of raw materials, and inconsistent quality are common issues. Regular cleaning around the stove and chimney is mandatory, and the preparation of wood can be demanding. Additionally, spaces may become cooler or even cold after just a few hours of absence from home. None of these tasks are necessary when using a heat pump, allowing users more free time for other activities.

Monitoring and controlling the heat pump is straightforward with the Cloud.KRONOTERM application. The application, which can be installed on a computer or mobile phone, is the result of more than a decade of development, taking into account user preferences and recommendations from installers. Users have an overview and control of the system’s operation anywhere, anytime. They can set different operating schedules for each day of the week, choose operating modes, review system operation trends and various temperatures, optimizing and further rationalizing home heating and cooling based on their own living habits.

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